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Viscosity Tubes

Rheology is a branch of science dealing with the deformation and flow of materials which includes the subject of viscosity. Viscosity is a measurement of internal friction, or resistance, to flow by external forces. Viscosity is the ratio of shear force to shear rate expressed by:

The viscosity of many materials depends on shear rate and is classified accordingly. Viscosity is expressed as Absolute n, and Kinematic, v. Absolute viscosity is determined by measuring the shear force required to produce a given shear rate and is independent of the density of the liquid. Kinematic viscosity is measured by the time required for a given volume of liquid to flow through a capillary or restriction. It is related to flow caused by the hydrostatic head of the liquid and therefore strongly dependent on density.

The relationship between Absolute and Kinematic viscosity is given by the following, where p is density:

Rising Bubble Technique, Principle

The time required for an air bubble in liquid to rise is directly proportional to its viscosity. Bubble rise rates vary with the inside diameters of viscosity tubes; therefore, the tubes must be precision matched to a tolerance that will keep bubble rise rate variations below the level of visual detection. Variations in viscosity readings or comparisons are visually imperceptible from viscosity tubes with inside diameter tolerances closer than +/- 0.025mm. Any variations in readings are attributed to differences in viscosities.

Viscosity is determined by either measuring the time an air bubble takes to pass between two specifically spaced marks on viscosity tubes, or by comparison to the bubble rate rise of calibrated viscosity standards. The accuracy of the method is therefore a function of precision matching of tube bores and identical score heights, which are measured from the center outside bottom.

Other factors, such as uniformity of temperature and verticality of tubes, influence timed bubble travel and controlled laboratory techniques are essential for precise results. For example, a variation in temperature of 0.1°C will cause a 1% variation in the timed bubble travel, and a one radius departure from tube verticality may introduce a 10% error in timed bubble travel.

Procedure for Using Cargille Viscosity Tubes

A viscosity tube is filled to the 100mm level score with the material to be tested. A cork is inserted to the 108mm score which provides and fixes a uniform air bubble. The sample, and standard if used, is placed in a suitable rack and immersed in a water bath until a uniform temperature of 25°C (77°F) is attained. If viscosity determinations are performed by referral to comparison samples of known viscosities or precisely calibrated standards, then they too should be at the same temperature as the samples. Viscosity is determined by one of two methods:

Comparison Methods

The bubble rate rise of the samples is compared to samples of known viscosities or calibrated standards contained in tubes of the same dimensions. The rack containing the samples and standards is removed from the water bath, held vertically to stabilize the air bubbles and quickly inverted maintaining verticality. A comparison of air bubble speed of the samples to the standards permits estimation of viscosity; the faster the rate of bubble rise, the lower the viscosity. The user may prepare viscosity standards or employ Gardner Viscosity Standards.

Time-Method (ASTM D-1545)

Time-Test Tubes are required to determine viscosity by the Timed-Method. The length of time, in seconds, required for an air bubble to pass from the 27mm to 100mm score mark, a distance of 73mm, is approximately equal to the viscosity of the liquid in "Stoke" units; alternatively, viscosity may be expressed in "Bubble Seconds." It is important to note that the position of the air bubble in relation to the 27mm score should be similar at the end of the test on the 100mm score.

Viscosity Tube Selection Guide

Cargille Viscosity Tubes are divided into four Classes as determined by precision sorting in accordance with bore size, number of score marks and contemplated method of use for bubble rise testing. The numbers assigned refer to bore size, which is expressed in mm.

TIME-TEST VISCOSITY TUBES, 10.65mm
Time-Test Viscosity Tubes are frequently referred to as ASTM D-1545 Tubes, which originated from the adopted standard method of test for viscosity as described in ASTM D-1545* issued by the American Society for Testing and Materials. Time-Test Tubes are scored in three places, 27mm, 100mm and 108mm. The score mark at 27mm is used for a 73mm timed bubble travel. Time-Test Viscosity Tubes are also subjected to additional testing procedures to ascertain the 10.65mm bore which is very critical for precision measuring.

CLASS "G10.65" AND CLASS "V-10.75" TUBES
Class "G-10.65" and "V-10.75" Viscosity Tubes are used principally for direct comparisons to Gardner Viscosity Standards. Both Classes of tubes are inscribed at the 100mm and 108mm lengths. For bubble rate rise comparisons to Gardner Viscosity Standards, the following equivalency chart is provided:
Cargille Class "G-10.65" = Gardner Grade A Tubes
Cargille Class "V-10.75" = Gardner Grade B Tubes

CLASS "V" VISCOSITY TUBES
Class "V" Tubes are the least expensive of the viscosity tubes. Their principal utility is for comparison to other samples or standards of known viscosities as prepared by the user.
Class "V" Tubes are the Cargille specific assigned sizes between 10.50 and 11.00mm, with the exception of the 10.65mm and Class "V-10.75"mm sizes. Within this range, a specific tube size will be assigned, recorded in the Cargille Master File for future reference on reorders to insure furnishing the identical tube size. The Class "V" Tubes are also inscribed at the 100mm and 108mm lengths.

CLASS
SCORE MARKS
I.D. +/-0.025mm
METHOD OF TESTING
Time-Test,
10.65mm
(ASTM D-1545)
108mm,
100mm,
27mm
10.65
Bubble time rise or bubble comparisons
Class
"G-10.65"
108mm,
100mm
10.65
(equivalent to Gardner A tubes)

Bubble comparisons to Gardner Standards; or to calibrated standards with identical tube dimensions
Class
"V-10.75"
108mm,
100mm
10.75
(equivalent to Gardner B tubes)
Class "V"
108mm,
100mm
10.50 to 11.00**
Bubble comparisons to standards prepared by the user

NOTE: All score marks are measured from the center of the outside bottom. **Excluding 10.65 and 10.75mm sizes.

Viscosity Tube Specifications

Dimensions

Cargille Viscosity Tubes are manufactured to the closet possible tolerances and then precisely measured for final selection.

Length
114mm +/-2mm
Wall Thickness
0.65mm
Tolerance, ID
+/-0.025
Composition
Soda-lime glass, flat-bottom
Score Height Tolerance
+/-0.5mm

Score Marks

All Cargille Viscosity Tubes are permanently marked with two score marks, at 100mm and 108mm heights with the exception of Time-Test Viscosity Tubes, which have an additional score at 27mm. In compliance with ASTM D-1545, all score marks are measured from the center outside bottom of the tubes The score mark at 100mm represents the filling level and the 108mm score is used to fix the size of the air bubble in the tube by inserting a cork to this mark. The 27mm and 100mm scores on Time-Test Viscosity Tubes are used to time bubble rise. In instances where more than one viscosity tube size is used, in the same laboratory, an additional score is inscribed, on request, to differentiate between sizes.

Cargille Quality Assurance Service

Cargille Laboratories, Inc. maintains a master record for every Viscosity Tube customer. All production specifications related to the specific viscosity tubes supplied are maintained indefinitely. Each subsequent request for similar viscosity tubes is individually processed by referral to the firm's specifications record. This record keeping avoids any possibility of potential typographic error in requisitioning viscosity tubes. Cargille's unique Quality Assurance Service is automatically effected and is applicable to singular or multiple viscosity tube purchases.

Viscosity Tube Price Schedule

PRICE
CAT NO. DESCRIPTION 1 DOZ 1/2 GROSS 1 GROSS
44154 Time - Test (ASTM-D-1545) $55.25 (per doz) $127.75 $217.75
44106 Class "G-10.65" $50.00 $110.75 $189.00
44107 Class "V-10.75" $45.00 $96.25 $165.50
44100 Class "V" $40.25 $81.75 $140.25

Viscosity Tube Accessories

CARGILLE "10" VISCOSITY TUBE HOLDER DISCONTINUED
All stainless steel construction; holds up to 10 viscosity tubes by convenient spring-loading design. Samples and standards may be concurrently immersed in water bath, removed and held vertically for bubble rate rise comparisons.

VISCOSITY TUBE SAMPLE STORAGE BOX
A durable, compact, solid, fiberboard Sample Storage Box with attractive dark green, moisture and abrasive resistant exterior covering holds up to 100 viscosity tubes in partitioned compartments. The compartments are arranged 5 x 20 and are alphanumerically indexed for rapidly locating stored viscosity samples. Boxes are supplied with separate, correspondingly-numbered index chart for recording pertinent sample information, and an exterior card in a polished brass card holder for easily identifying the general contents of the Sample Storage Box Model CK-3.

ROUGH SORT TUBES
Tubes unsuitable for viscosity applications are separated, sorted, matched and grouped in two ranges according to tube bore size. Although these tubes are not precision matched or scored, they are adequately matched in bore size for diversified use in general industrial and laboratory procedures.
Rough Sort Tubes, Low...Range: 10.50-10.75mm
Rough Sort Tubes, High...Range: 10.75-11.00mm

COLOR TUBES
Critical color or turbidity comparisons are frequently affected by variations in the light path of the liquid sample. To minimize this "visual diluting" effect, tubes are available with bore sizes to +/-0.05mm to insure replicate volume comparisons under similar light path conditions.
Dimensions: 114mm long, 10.80mm ID, 0.65mm wall thickness.

SHELL VIALS
Tubes exhibiting bore sizes exceeding Viscosity, Color and Rough Sort Tube specifications are available for innumerable laboratory applications where inside dimensional tolerance is not critical.
Dimensions: 114mm long, approximate 12mm O.D., 0.65mm wall thickness.

CORKS
High quality, short length corks properly fit viscosity tubes so that the small end is in firm contact with inside of tubes to prevent small extraneous bubbles from interfering with timed bubble movement.

Accessories Price Schedule

CAT NO. DESCRIPTION 1 DOZ 1/2 GROSS 1 GROSS
44350 Color Tubes $32.50 $50.00 $76.50
44200 Rough Sort Tubes, Low $29.50 $45.00 $67.75
44250 Rough Sort Tubes, High $29.50 $45.00 $67.75

36134
CK-3 SHELL VIALS; PRICE PER GROSS
1 GROSS 3 GROSS 6 GROSS 12 GROSS 24 GROSS
$51.75 $50.00 $45.25 $38.25 $35.00

CAT NO. DESCRIPTION PRICE
44010 Cargille "10" Viscosity Tube Holder DISCONTINUED
44004 Corks (for Viscosity Tubes) 150 corks per pkg $14.00/per pkg.
36132 Sample Storage Box CK-3, holds 100 tubes $32.25/ea.

All prices are subject to change without notice. Please contact us to confirm prices.
Site Last Modified January 16, 2017
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All trademarks and trade names are the property of their respective owners.

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